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Ginkgo Biloba, a famous living fossil tree and an ancient herbal traditional Chinese medicine

Author(s):

Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian*, Wenli Sun* and Qi Cheng  

Abstract:


Background: Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is a living fossil and a deciduous tree, which has extracts with antidiabetic, antioxidant anticancer, antihypertensive, immunestimulative, hepato-protective and antimicrobial activities, memory enhancement efficiency and beneficial effects against neurodegenerative disease.

Objective: The goal of this manuscript is survey on medicinal values and natural benefits of Ginkgo.

Methods: This review evaluated publication in MEDLINE/PubMEd database and Google Scholar. The keywords used to electronically search were Ginkgo biloba, living fossil, bioactive components and traditional Chinese medicine.

Results: Its main active constituents extracts are flavones glycosides such kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin, terpene lactones, alkyphenols, proanthocyanadins, rhamnose, glucose, D-glucaric acid, ginkgolic acid, organic acids such as hydroxykinurenic, kynurenic, protocatechic, shikimic and vanillic. Ginkgo kernels have been used as medicine or eaten as nut in traditional medicinal science. The most notable pharmaceutical application of Ginkgo are in cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer, impaired cerebral performance, vascular insufficiency, antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, premenstrual syndrome, liver fibrosis, vascular disease, tinnitus, macular degeneration, memory and vertigo.

Conclusion: Development of modern drugs from Ginkgo by considering the importance of traditional medicinal Asian science with further researches should be emphasized.

Keywords:

Living Fossil, Medicinal Plant, Bioactive Components, Chemical Constituent, Traditional Knowledge, Ginkgetin

Affiliation:

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081



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