Fredrick B. Agengo*, Arnold N. Onyango, Charlotte A. Serrem and Judith Okoth Pages 749 - 756 ( 8 )
Background: Formulation of composite flours from wheat and non-wheat flours has been proposed as the most desirable way to improve the nutritional quality in diets, promote food security and lower cost of baked products.
Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fortification with snail meat powder on physicochemical properties and shelf life of sorghum-wheat buns.
Methods: Buns were prepared by replacing part of sorghum-wheat flour with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% snail meat powder. Physical properties of volume, density, baking loss, yield, weight, hardness and colour, the proximate analyses including moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash and mineral composition of iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and copper were analyzed for the buns. In vitro protein digestibility was determined by pepsin digestion. Plate count agar and potato dextrose agar were respectively used for enumeration of bacterial and fungal flora, in the buns during storage. Shelf life determination was based number of days before the production of off flavours and fungal infestation.
Results: Compositing sorghum-wheat flour with snail meat powder progressively improved the buns density, baking loss, yield, weight and texture. Protein, fat, ash, energy, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and copper contents also increased. Fortification of buns at 5% and 25% with SMP improved in vitro protein digestibility by 16% and 22% respectively. Maximum bacterial count in buns was below the International Microbiological Standards recommended units for dry and ready to eat foods of 103 cfu/g.
Conclusion: Buns composited with snail meat powder have considerable potential to be used as protein rich foods in preventing Protein Energy Malnutrition among young children.
Buns, digestibility, nutrient imbalance, protein energy malnutrition, protein rich foods, snail meat powder, sorghum- wheat.
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, P.O. Box 62000 – 00200, Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, P.O. Box 62000 – 00200, Nairobi, University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, P.O. Box 1125 – 30100, Eldoret, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, P.O. Box 62000 – 00200, Nairobi