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No Difference Between Iron Supplementation Only and Iron Supplementation with Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Iron Status, Growth, and Gut Microbiota Profile in Elementary School Children with Iron Deficiency

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]


Siti Helmyati*, Endang Sutriswati Rahayu, Bernadette Josephine Istiti Kandarina and Mohammad Juffrie   Pages 220 - 227 ( 8 )


Background: Iron deficiency may inhibit the height increase and weight gain of children. On the other hand, the supplementation of iron causes gut microbiota imbalance which leads to inflammation and diarrhea. The addition of synbiotic fermented milk is expected to have beneficial effects on iron supplementation. This study aimed to determine the effects of iron supplementation only and its administration with synbiotic fermented milk on iron status, body height and weight, and gut microbiota profile of iron deficient elementary school children.

Methods: This research was an experimental study with pre and post test conducted on 59 irondeficient children. Subjects were given iron supplementation in syrups (IS group) or given iron supplementation in syrup with fermented milk (containing synbiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13 and fructo-oligosaccharide) (ISFM group) for 3 months. The body weight and height, hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels, and total number of Lactobacilli, Enterobacteria, Bifidobacteria, and Escherichia coli were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.

Results: The body height in the ISFM group increased significantly than that in IS group after the intervention (1.67 vs. 2.42, p<0.05). The hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in IS and ISFM groups were improved significantly (p<0.05) although the difference between the two groups was not significant (p>0.05). The results showed no significant difference of gut microbiota profile between the IS and ISFM groups (p>0.05).

Conclusion: There is no difference on the iron status, height, weight, and gut microbiota profile of iron-deficient primary school children received iron supplementation only or iron supplementation with synbiotic fermented milk.


Child growth, fermented milk, gut microbiota, iron deficiency, iron supplementation, synbiotic.


Center for Health and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Center for Health and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Department of Pediatric Health, General Hospital Dr. Sardjito/Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281

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