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Protein Quality, Secondary Structure and Effect of Physicochemical Factors on Emulsifying Properties of Irvingia gabonensis Almonds

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Martin A. Mune Mune*, Christian B. Bassogog, Pierre A. Bayiga, Carine E. Nyobe and Samuel R. Minka   Pages 367 - 375 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: The almonds of Irvingia gabonensis are unconventional legumes, rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates, and used in the preparation of traditional dishes. Consumption of Irvingia gabonensis almonds has been linked to the reduction of low-density lipoprotein. On this basis, Irvingia gabonensis could find application as a low-cost ingredient or supplement in the formulation of food products.

Results: We examined protein quality and physicochemical properties, secondary structure and effect of oil to water ratio (OWR), pH and concentration on emulsifying properties of Irvingia gabonensis almonds. The flour contained 22.26% protein, 5.30% ash and 60% carbohydrates. Proteins contained all essential amino acids, with high content of Leu, Ile, Val, Thr and sulfur-containing amino acids. Essential amino acid index (69%), protein efficiency ratio (2.39-2.63) and biological value (79.91%) were studied. The maximum protein solubility (61%) was noticed at pH 8, while high hydrophobicity was observed at pH 2. A transition from an irregular secondary structure to a more ordered structure was found from pH 2-4 to pH 6-10. pH, OWR and concentration significantly affected emulsifying properties of Irvingia gabonensis almonds. The maximum emulsifying capacity (EC) was observed under acidic pH and high flour concentration. EC increased with increasing OWR and concentration, while decreased with increasing pH. High ES (25-35%) was observed at pH 4-8 and OWR of 1/3 to 1/2 (v/v), at flour concentration of 3-4% (w/v).

Conclusion: On the basis of nutritional, physicochemical and functional properties it could be concluded that Irvingia gabonensis showed good potential as food ingredient or supplement.

Keywords:

Emulsifying properties, hydrophobicity, Irvingia gabonensis, protein quality, response surface methodology, secondary structure.

Affiliation:

Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, PO Box 814 Maroua, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé



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