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The Rheology of Caramel

[ Vol. 9 , Issue. 1 ]


Giuseppina Barra and John R. Mitchell   Pages 15 - 25 ( 11 )


Caramel is an emulsion of a dispersed phase of fat droplets stabilized by milk proteins in an aqueous amorphous sugar matrix containing products of caramelization and Maillard reaction. The processing of caramel in an industrial scale has many problems related to its rheology. In particular tailing and cold flow are undesirable effects. The rheology of caramel was studied as a function of processing temperature and hydrocolloid addition. Both rotational and capillary techniques were used. Caramel without added hydrocolloids had behavior which was close to a Newtonian liquid. Incorporation of the hydrocolloids carrageenan and gellan gum into the caramel made the material non-Newtonian and elastic. The latter was seen for both the oscillation and creep responses. Glass transition temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and calculated from the temperature dependence of the shift factors used to superimpose the oscillatory rheological data. Generally there was agreement between the two approaches although for some gellan gum containing samples the rheological Tg was about 10ÂșC higher than the DSC value.


Food confectionery, emulsion, caramel, rheology, cold flow, calorimetry, hydrocolloids, milk, protein, Newtonian liquid


University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering, Via Ponte don Mellilo Fisciano, Italy.

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